OCD and Anxiety
Dr. Pahlavan is a licensed clinical psychologist and clinical director of thechild and adolescent day treatment and partial hospitalization services at Rogers Memorial Hospital.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that is often first noticed during the preschool and early school years. One of the most common childhood disorders, ADHD affects 5 to 8 percent of school age children.
ADHD symptoms can be categorized into two groups: inattention and hyperactivity and impulsivity. In early childhood, these behaviors are common; however, in children with ADHD these behaviors occur more frequently and are more severe. Some of these characteristics may be:
These difficulties can be observed in free play settings, but as the child grows and is required to show focused attention on tasks, such as school work, the symptoms may be seen more frequently. With ADHD, hyperactivity/impulsive behaviors are often noticed in early childhood, while inattentive behaviors become more apparent when a child enters school.
While the most recognized method of treating ADHD is through medication, successful ADHD treatment is multidimensional and includes evidence-based therapeutic techniques. The two most important elements of treatment include medication management and behavior therapy.
When first diagnosed there may be a process of trial and observation to determine the right medication and dosage; however, 70 to 80 percent of kids have an excellent initial response. The most common medications prescribed for ADHD are stimulants. While it seems odd, the drugs stimulate the areas of the brain that are responsible for attention and impulse control and help a child to focus.
In addition, behavior therapy can be used to address specific behaviors or teach a child new skills to help him or her manage their behavior. For example, therapy may include social skills training to improve communication, interpersonal skills or self-esteem.
Another facet of behavior therapy can include parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) which teaches parents how to encourage desired behaviors and minimize the impulsive or inattentive ones.
Children with ADHD may have a more difficult time during the school year than children without ADHD. The following are some suggestions for parents to help the school year go smoothly and successfully:
If your child’s behavior makes you question if it is ADHD or just a normal part of growing up, begin by talking to your child’s teacher, many times they will be the first to notice. A pediatrician is another option and can even recommend you to a mental health professional that has expertise in ADHD.
Sources: Child Mind Institute